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In recent years, soil and geological evidence has been increasingly used in investigations and both criminal and civil law trials in the UK, but worldwide its acceptance in the courts varies from country to country. This partly reflects the different legal traditions, the greatly varying degree of sophistication displayed Airis N513 Modem the investigation and analysis methods between different countries.

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However, professional and public awareness of the potential power of forensic geoscience evidence is increasing, and there can be little doubt that it will become increasingly used on a global scale over the coming decades. Key questions and approaches In serious crime cases, one of the most common tasks is to determine whether a suspect or Airis N513 Modem means of transport, such as a car or motorcycle was present at the scene of Airis N513 Modem crime. Items seized from the suspect, including footwear, clothing, digging implements or car, are routinely examined for traces of blood, DNA, fibres or hair that might link the suspect to the victim or the scene, but increasingly they are also being examined for traces of soil, mud, dust or pollen that might also indicate a link.

Increasing forensic awareness among criminals, many of whom now take precautions not to leave DNA or similar traces, means that new types of potential evidence need to be found. In such a case, the investigator may well be presented initially with an exhibit such as that shown in Figure 2, a pair of shoes with relatively small amounts of mud on Airis N513 Modem soles. In view of the relatively small amount of material available for analysis, the investigator needs to draw up an examination and analysis strategy in order to maximize the amount of information that can be obtained from the removed material and to obtain the maximum evidential value possible.

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This requires selection of the most appropriate analytical techniques, as well as the collection of appropriate background data against which the analytical data can be compared. Two key questions are typically asked Airis N513 Modem investigating police officers: Footwear with mud deposits on the soles belonging to a murder suspect, later convicted. Attempts had been made Airis N513 Modem scrape mud off the sole of the shoe on the right. The examination and analysis techniques used should be as nondestructive as possible, both to maximize the potential for as many tests as possible to be carried out and to preserve evidence for possible later defence examination.

If test results show that the questioned mud cannot be excluded as having come from the crime scene, the next question is one of the degree of similarity, or 'match', and its evidential significance. No two natural soil or sediment samples are ever absolutely identical, and the key issue is therefore to decide how much similarity, and how much dis-similarity exists, and with what degree of probability it can be stated that the questioned sample did originate, in whole or in part, from the crime scene. In some, relatively rare, circumstances it may be 3 possible to Airis N513 Modem with virtual certainty that the crime scene was the source. This normally arises where there is some form of physical fit, for example between two halves of a broken rock, or where soil is taken from a characteristic shoe impression in the ground.

It may also be possible where one or, more commonly, several, highly unusual particle Airis N513 Modem sometimes referred to as 'exotics' are found in common between the questioned soil sample and the crime scene control samples. In many cases, however, no such evidence is available, and assessment of degree of match and its significance must be based on comparison of several different bulk sample properties, which are evaluated using a combination of statistical, graphical and other methods.

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Assessment of evidential value involves both quantification of the degree of similarity between two samples and comparison with data in some form of Airis N513 Modem which can provide information about similar samples in other locations. The quality of database information varies from place to place, and in many investigations it is necessary to collect and analyse additional samples for comparison purposes specifically in the context of the investigation in hand. It goes without saying that the better the database and quality of contextual information available, the greater the confidence that can be placed in any conclusions reached. Contextual information includes such factors as the timing of the alleged offence and seizure of the exhibit e.

Investigating officers have a duty to provide the investigator with as much relevant information as possible without deliberately trying to influence acquisition or interpretation of Airis N513 Modem results. It is always advantageous if the forensic geoscientist has an opportunity to examine critical exhibits first hand and to undertake any sampling of soil and mud that may be necessary. In this way, the sequence of mud acquisition may be identified and appropriate types of samples collected for analysis. Scenes of crime officers and police often are not fully aware of the requirements for geological sample collection, storage and handling, although the situation is improving.

Similarly, it is of great Airis N513 Modem if the forensic geoscientist is able to visit the crime scene, preferably as soon as possible after the crime has been discovered. By doing so, hypotheses for investigation are generated and suitable 'control' samples can be taken. The fact that geoscience, like all natural sciences, is not an exact science does not undermine its usefulness in a court of law. Geological and soil trace evidence is in many respects similar to glass and fibre evidence, where probabilities of occurrence and significance of findings are best considered within a 4 K. Inevitably, however, there will be situations when it is not possible for the geoscientific expert witness to offer anything more than an expert opinion.

Guidance on the duties and responsibilities of the expert witness, both in report writing and in presenting evidence in court, is now widely available through publications and training programmes e.

Wider benefits and the way ahead Involvement in forensic casework often leads to wider Airis N513 Modem, both for the investigating forensic scientist and for wider geoscience as a whole. The specific requirements of forensic work, relating to sample continuity, documentation and critical review before a court of law, provide good general scientific discipline. Airis N513 Modem, new questions and hypotheses often arise within the context of a specific case, which can lead to significant developments in analytical techniques and procedures or generate a major research programme lasting several years!

The fact that much forensic science work involves small samples, which have to be preserved as far as possible, stimulates the need to develop ever more sensitive but reproducible techniques of analysis. In the future, the promising developments are likely to occur as a result of closer interdisciplinary collaboration between different forensically related subdisciplines. Similarly, issues such as geotraceability related to foodstuffs, drugs and other products is already fostering new collaborations between geologists, food scientists, biochemists and law enforcement agencies.

The next decade promises to generate many other exciting collaborations and developments.

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